5.2.7Accounting Principles

A. Accounting Framework

The consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and interpretations adopted by the EU, where effective, for financial years beginning January 1, 2016.

The separate financial statements included in section 5.4 are part of the 2016 financial statements of SBM Offshore N.V.

New standards, amendments and interpretations applicable as of January 1, 2016

The Company has adopted the following new standards with a date of initial application of January 1, 2016:

  • IAS 19 Amended ’Defined Benefit Plans: Employee Contributions’;
  • IFRS 11 Amendment ’Accounting for Acquisitions of Interests in Joint Operations’;
  • IAS 16 and IAS 38 Amendment ’Clarification of Acceptable Methods of Depreciation and Amortization’;
  • IAS 27 Amendment ’Equity Method in Separate Financial Statements’;
  • IAS 1 Amendment ’Disclosure Initiative’;
  • Annual improvements: 2010-2012 and 2012-2014 cycles.

The adoption of the interpretations, amendments and annual improvements had no significant effect on the financial statements for earlier periods and on the financial statements for the period ended December 31, 2016.

Standards and interpretations not mandatory applicable to the group as of January 1, 2016

The Company has decided not to early adopt standards and amendments published by the IASB and endorsed by the European Commission, but not mandatory applicable as of January 1, 2016. Other new standards and amendments have been published by the IASB but have not been endorsed yet by the European Commission. Early adoption is not possible until European Commission endorsement. Those which may be relevant to the Company are set out below:

IFRS 9 – Financial Instruments

This Standard includes requirements for the classification, measurement and derecognition of financial assets and financial liabilities, introduces new rules for hedge accounting and a new impairment model for financial assets. This standard will be mandatory as of January 1, 2018.

The Company is analyzing the impacts and practical consequences of these standard’s future application. It is expected that the main impact will relate to the new impairment model whereby impairment of the financial assets are based on a current expected credit losses model.

IFRS 15 – Revenue Recognition

The IASB has issued a new standard for the recognition of revenue. This will replace IAS 18 which covers contracts for goods and services and IAS 11 which covers construction contracts.

This standard specifies how and when an IFRS reporter will recognize revenue as well as requiring such entities to provide users of financial statements with more informative, relevant disclosures. The standard provides a single, principles based five-step model to be applied to all contracts with customers. This standard will be mandatory as of January 1, 2018.

The Company is analyzing the impacts and practical consequences of these standard’s future application. The preliminary analysis of the existing contracts demonstrates that the construction contract represents one performance obligation and the progress-based measurement of revenue will still be the main method used by the Company for the construction contracts. The lease contracts are not impacted by IFRS 15 as they are covered by IFRS 16. For the operating and maintanance contracts no major changes are anticipated.

The Company expects to use the retrospective implementation method in 2018, with restatement of comparative figures for 2017.

IFRS 16 – Leases

IFRS 16 was issued in January 2016. This standard specifies how an IFRS reporter will recognize, measure, present and disclose leases. The standard provides a single lessee accounting model, requiring lessees to recognize assets and liabilities for all leases unless the lease term is 12 months or less or the underlying asset has a low value. Lessors continue to classify leases as operating or finance, with IFRS 16’s approach to lessor accounting substantially unchanged from its predecessor, IAS 17.

The accounting for contracts where the Company is the lessor is expected to be unchanged.

The Company has a number of lease contracts for land and buildings and instalment vessel that are currently accounted for under IAS 17 as operating leases. The following changes are expected upon transition to IFRS 16:

  • Assets and liabilities are expected to increase by an amount close to the net present value of future lease payments.
  • Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) will increase as the lease payments will be presented as depreciation and finance cost rather than operating expenses.
  • Operating cash flow will increase and investing and financing cash flow will decrease as the lease payments will no longer be considered as operational.

The Company will continue to analyze the impacts and practical consequences of these standard’s future application.

The new standard for leases is effective January 1, 2019.

Other new or revised accounting standards are not considered to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

B. Critical Accounting Policies

Critical accounting policies involving a high degree of judgement or complexity, or areas where assumptions and estimates are material, are disclosed in the paragraphs below.

(a) Use of estimates and judgement

When preparing the financial statements, it is necessary for the Management of the Company to make estimates and certain assumptions that can influence the valuation of the assets and liabilities and the outcome of the income statement. The actual outcome may differ from these estimates and assumptions, due to changes in facts and circumstances. Estimates and judgements are continually evaluated and are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that are believed to be reasonable. 


Significant areas of estimation and uncertainty in applying accounting policies that have the most significant impact on amounts recognized in the financial statements are:

The measurement of revenues and costs at completion, and margin recognition on construction contracts based on the stage of completion method:

Gross margin at completion and revenue at completion are reviewed periodically and regularly throughout the life of the contract. This requires a large number of estimates, especially of the total expected costs at completion, due to the complex nature of the Company’s construction contracts.
Judgement is also required for the recognition of variation orders, incentives and claims from clients where negotiations or discussions are at a sufficiently advanced stage.
The gross margin at completion reflects at each reporting period the management’s current best estimate of the probable future benefits and obligations associated with the contract. 

Provisions for anticipated losses are made in full in the period in which they become known.

Impairments and provision for onerous contracts:

Some assumptions and estimates used in the discounted cash flow model and the adjusted present value model to determine the value in use of assets or group of assets are subject to uncertainty. There is a possibility that changes in circumstances or in market conditions could impact the recoverable amount of the asset or group of assets. Such assumptions and estimates can also be required to determine the amount of specific provision related to onerous contracts.

The anticipated useful life of the leased facilities:

Management uses its experience to estimate the remaining useful life of an asset. The actual useful life of an asset may be impacted by an unexpected event that may result in an adjustment to the carrying amount of the asset.

The Company’s taxation:

The Company is subject to income taxes in numerous jurisdictions. Significant judgement is required in determining the worldwide provision for income taxes. There are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain during the ordinary course of business. The Company recognizes liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues based on estimates of whether additional taxes will be due. As per IAS 12, the liabilities include any penalties and interests that could be associated to the tax audit issue. Where the final tax outcome of these matters is different from the amounts that were initially recorded, such differences will influence the income tax and deferred tax provisions in the period in which such determination is made.

The Company’s exposure to litigation with third parties and non-compliance:

The Company identifies and provides analysis on a regular basis, of current litigations and measures, when necessary, provisions on the basis of its best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation, taking into account information available and different possible outcomes at the reporting period.

The Warranty fund :

A warranty provision is accrued during the construction phase of projects, based on historical warranty expenditure. At the completion of a project a warranty provision (depending on the nature of the project) is therefore provided for and reported as provision in the statement of financial position. Following the acceptance of a project the warranty provision is released over the warranty period. For some specific claims formally notified by the customer and which can be reliably estimated an amount is provided in full and without discounting. An overall review of the warranty fund is performed by management at each reporting date.

The timing and estimated cost of demobilization:

The estimated future costs of demobilization are reviewed on a regular basis and adjusted when appropriate. Nevertheless, considering the long-term expiry date of the obligations, these costs are subject to uncertainty. Indeed, cost estimates can vary in response to many factors, including for example new demobilization techniques, the Company’s own experience on demobilization operations, future changes in laws and regulations, and timing of demobilization operation.

Estimates and assumptions made in determining these obligations, can therefore lead to significant adjustments to the future financial results. Nevertheless, the cost of demobilization obligations at the reporting date represent management’s best estimate of the present value of the future costs required.

All significant projects have been completed during the year and there is therefore no significant estimates related to measurement of the stage of completion of projects as of December 2016. Several of the estimates included the 2016 financial statements are disclosed in the highlights section (5.3.1) and are detailed as follows:

  • Onerous contract provision (detailed in note 5.3.26) related to (i) the long-term contract with Diving Support and Construction Vessel SBM Installer amounting to US$ 31 million due to the activity outlook deterioration and (ii) the long-term offices rental contracts amounting to US$ 11 million in the light of the recent restructuring activities which has created overcapacity in rented office space in various Regional Centers
  • Impairment of the net investment in the Angolan yard amounting to US$ 59 million due to the activity outlook deterioration


In addition to the above estimates, the management exercises the following judgement:

Lease classification:

When the Company enters into a new lease arrangement, the terms and conditions of the contract are analyzed in order to assess whether or not the Company retains the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the asset subject of the lease contract. In applying the criteria provided by IAS 17 ‘Leases’, the Company can make significant judgement to determine whether the arrangement results in a finance lease or an operating lease. This judgement can have a significant effect on the amounts recognized in the consolidated financial statements.

(b) Leases: accounting by lessor

A lease is an agreement whereby the lessor conveys to the lessee, in return for a payment, or series of payments, the right to use an asset for an agreed period of time.

Leases in which a significant portion of the risk and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Under an operating lease, the asset is included in the statement of financial position as property, plant and equipment. Lease income is recognized over the term of the lease on a straight-line basis. This implies the recognition of deferred income when the contractual day rates are not constant during the initial term of the lease contract.

When assets are leased under a finance lease, the present value of the lease payments is recognized as a financial asset. Under a finance lease, the difference between the gross receivable and the present value of the receivable is recognized as revenue. Lease income is, as of the commencement date of the lease contract, recognized over the term of the lease using the net investment method, which reflects a constant periodic rate of return. During the construction phase of the facility, the contract is treated as a construction contract, whereby the percentage of completion method is applied.

(c) Impairment of non-financial assets

Under certain circumstances, impairment tests must be performed. Assets that have an indefinite useful life, for example goodwill, are tested annually for impairment and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. Other assets that are subject to amortization or depreciation are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable.

The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or cash-generating-unit’s (CGU’s) fair value less costs of disposal and its value-in-use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or group of assets. An impairment loss is recognized for the amount by which the assets or CGU’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount.

In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money, and risks specific to the asset. The Company bases its future cash flows on detailed budgets and forecasts.

Non-financial assets, other than goodwill, that have been impaired are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at each statement of financial position date.

(d) Impairment of financial assets

The Company assesses whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets (together referred to as ‘financial asset’) may be impaired at the end of each reporting date. An impairment exists if one or more events (a ‘loss event’) that have occurred after the initial recognition of the asset, have an impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset that can be reliably estimated. The criteria that the Company uses to determine whether there is objective evidence of an impairment loss include:

  • significant financial difficulty of the obligor
  • a breach of contract, such as a default or delinquency in interest or principal payments
  • the Company, for economic or legal reasons relating to the borrower’s financial difficulty, grants to the borrower a concession that the lender would not otherwise consider
  • it becomes probable that the borrower will enter bankruptcy or other financial reorganization
  • national or local economic conditions that correlate with defaults on the financial assets

The amount of the impairment is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of the estimated future cash flows (excluding future credit losses that have not yet been incurred) discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate. The asset’s carrying amount is reduced by the impairment which is recognized in the income statement. If the financial asset has a variable interest rate, the discount rate for measuring any impairment loss is the current effective interest rate determined under the contract.

If, in a subsequent period, the amount of the impairment loss decreases and the decrease can be related objectively to an event occurring after the impairment was recognized, the reversal of the previously recognized impairment loss is recognized in the income statement.

Impairment on trade and other receivables is described later in Section 5.2.7 C. Significant Accounting Policies.

(e) Revenue

Revenue is shown net of value-added tax, returns, rebates and discounts and after eliminating sales within the group.

Construction contracts :

Construction contracts are accounted for in accordance with IAS 11 ‘Construction contracts’. Revenue and gross margin are recognized at each period based upon the advancement of the work-in-progress, using the percentage of completion. The percentage of completion is calculated based on the ratio of costs incurred to date to total estimated costs. Margin is recognized only when the visibility of the riskiest stages of the contract is deemed sufficient and when estimates of costs and revenues are considered to be reliable.

Complex projects that present a high risk profile due to technical novelty, complexity or pricing arrangements agreed with the client are subject to independent project reviews at advanced degrees of completion in engineering prior to recognition of margin, typically around 25% complete. An internal project review is an internal but independent review of the status of a project based upon an assessment of a range of project management and company topics. Until this point, no margin is recognized, with revenue recognized to the extent of cost incurred.

Due to the nature of the services performed, variation orders and claims are commonly billed to clients in the normal course of business. Additional contract revenue arising from variation orders is recognized when it is more than probable that the client will approve the variation and the amount of revenue arising from the variation can be reliably measured. Revenue resulting from claims is recognized in contract revenue only when negotiations have reached an advanced stage such that it is more than probable that the client will accept the claim and that the amount can be measured reliably.

Lease and operate contracts :

Revenue from long-term operating lease contracts is reported on a straight-line basis over the period of the contract once the facility has been brought into service. The difference between straight-line revenue and the contractual day-rates, which may not be constant throughout the charter, is included as deferred income. Revenue from finance lease contracts is, as of the commencement date of the lease contract, recognized over the term of the lease using the net investment method, which reflects a constant periodic rate of return.

(f) Construction work in progress

Construction work in progress is stated at cost plus profit recognized to date less any provisions for foreseeable losses and less invoiced instalments. Cost includes all expenditures related directly to specific projects and attributable overhead. Where instalments exceed the value of the related costs, the excess is included in current liabilities. Advances received from customers are also included in current liabilities per project.

(g) Demobilization obligations

The demobilization obligations of the Company are either stated in the lease contract or derive from the international conventions and the specific legislation applied in the countries where the Company builds assets. Demobilization costs will be incurred by the Company at the end of the operating life of the Company’s facilities.

For operating leases, the net present value of the future obligations is included in property, plant and equipment with a corresponding amount included in the provision for demobilization. As the remaining duration of each lease reduces, and the discounting effect on the provision unwinds, accrued interest is recognized as part of financial expenses and added to the provision. The subsequent updates of the measurement of the demobilization costs are recognized both impacting the provision and the asset. In some cases, when the contract includes a demobilization bareboat fee that the Company invoices to the client during the demobilization phase, a receivable is recognized at the beginning of the loan phase for the discounted value of the fee.

For finance leases, demobilization obligations are analyzed as a component of the sale recognized under IAS 17 ‘Leases’. Therefore, because of the fact that demobilization operation is performed at a later stage, the related revenue is deferred until demobilization operations occur. The subsequent updates of the measurement of the demobilization costs are recognized immediately through deferred revenue, for the present value of the change.

C. Significant Accounting Policies

The consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared on the historical cost basis except for the revaluation of certain financial instruments.

(a) Distinction between current and non-current assets and liabilities

The distinction between current assets and liabilities, and non-current assets and liabilities is based on their maturity. Assets and liabilities are classified as ‘current’ if their maturity is less than twelve months or ‘non-current’ if their maturity exceeds twelve months.

(b) Consolidation

The Company’s consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of all controlled subsidiaries.

In determining under IFRS 10 whether the Company has power over the investee, exposure or rights to variable returns from its involvement, it is assessed that, for entities whereby all key decisions are taken on a mutual consent basis, the main deciding feature resides in the deadlock clause existing in shareholders’ agreements. In case a deadlock situation arises at the Board of Directors of an entity, whereby the Board is unable to force a decision, the deadlock clause of the shareholders’ agreements generally stipulates whether a substantive right is granted to the Company or to all the partners in the entity to buy its shares through a compensation mechanism that is fair enough for the Company or one of the partner to acquire these shares. In case such a substantive right is granted to the Company, the entity will be defined under IFRS 10 as controlled by the Company. In case no such substantive right is granted through the deadlock clause to the Company, the entity will be defined as a joint arrangement.


Subsidiaries are all entities over which the group has control. The group controls an entity when the group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. Subsidiaries are consolidated using the full consolidation method.

All reciprocal transactions between two controlled subsidiaries, with no profit or loss impact at consolidation level, are fully eliminated for the preparation of the consolidated financial statements.

Interests in joint ventures:

The group has applied IFRS 11 ‘Joint arrangement’ to all joint arrangements. Under IFRS 11 investment in joint arrangements are classified as either joint operations or joint ventures depending on the contractual rights and obligations of each investor. In determining under IFRS11 the classification of a ‘Joint arrangement’, the Company assessed that all ‘Joint arrangements’ were structured through private limited liability companies incorporated in various jurisdictions. As a result, assets and liabilities held in these separate vehicles were those of the separate vehicles and not those of the shareholders of these limited liability companies. Shareholders had therefore no direct rights to the assets, nor primary obligations for liabilities of these vehicles. The group has considered the nature of its joint arrangements and determined them to be joint ventures. Joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method.

Investments in associates:

Associates are all entities over which the Company has significant influence. Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee, but is not control over those policies. Investments in associates are accounted for under the equity method.

When losses of an equity-accounted entity are greater than the value of the Company’s net investment in that entity, these losses are not recognized unless the Company has a constructive obligation to fund the entity. The share of the negative net equity of these is first accounted for against the loans held by the owner towards the equity-accounted company that form part of the net investment. Any excess is accounted for under provisions.

Reciprocal transactions carried out between a subsidiary and an equity-accounted entity, are not eliminated for the preparation of the consolidated financial statements. Only transactions leading to an internal profit (like for dividends or internal margin on asset sale) are eliminated applying the percentage owned in the equity-accounted entity.

The financial statements of the subsidiaries, associates and joint venture are prepared for the same reporting period as the Company and the accounting policies are in line with those of the Company.

(c) Non-derivatives financial assets

The Company classifies its financial assets into finance lease receivables, corporate debt securities and loans to joint ventures and associates. Trade and other receivables, even when they are financial assets according to IFRS definitions, are considered separately.

Finance leases are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determined payments that are not quoted in an active market.

Corporate securities relates to:

  • Fixed-rate bonds, issued by internationally known companies, quoted in liquid markets with fixed maturities, have bullet repayments at maturity and investment grade ratings at issuance. These instruments are classified as ‘held-to-maturity’ as the Company has the ability and intention to hold to maturity. In the event the criteria are not met, they are classified as available-for-sale. They are measured at fair value less transaction costs at initial recognition and subsequently measured at amortized cost. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption value, is recognized in the consolidated income statement over the period of the borrowings, using the effective interest method.
  • Other investments, such as equity shares, are initially measured at fair value less transaction costs and subsequently measured at fair value through Other Comprehensive Income, as they are classified in the available-for sale category.

Loans to joint ventures and associates relate primarily to interest-bearing loans to joint ventures. These financial assets are initially measured at fair value less transaction costs (if any) and subsequently measured at amortized cost.

Corporate securities and loans to joint ventures and associates are recognized on settlement date being the date on which cash is paid or received.

A financial asset or a group of financial assets is considered to be impaired only if objective evidence indicates that one or more events (‘loss events’), happening after its initial recognition, have an effect on the estimated future cash flows of that asset. For loans to joint ventures and subsidiaries, as the Company has visibility over the expected cash inflows and outflows of the counterparty (joint venture), impairment occurs as soon as there is evidence that the asset will not be duly repaid.

(d) Borrowings (bank and other loans)

Borrowings are recognized on settlement date being the date on which cash is paid or received. They are initially recognized at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred (transaction price), subsequently measured at amortized cost and classified as current liabilities unless the Company has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least twelve months after the statement of financial position date. 

Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset are capitalized into the cost of the asset in the period in which they are incurred. Otherwise, borrowing costs are recognized as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.

(e) Operating segment information

As per IFRS 8, an operating segment is a component of an entity: that engages in business activities from which it may earn revenues and incur expenses whose operating results are regularly reviewed by the entity’s chief operating decision maker for which distinct financial information is available.

The Management Board, as chief operating decision maker, monitors the operating results of its operating segments separately for the purpose of making decisions about resource allocation and performance assessment. Segment performance is evaluated based on Revenue, Gross Margin and EBIT

The Group has two reportable segments:

  • the Lease and Operate segment includes all earned day-rates on long-term operating lease and operate contracts. In the case of a finance lease, revenue is recognized during the construction and installation period within the Turnkey segment. As of the commencement date of a finance lease contract, interest income is shown in this segment
  • the Turnkey segment includes Europe, Houston, Kuala Lumpur and Rio de Janeiro Regional Centers that derive revenues from turnkey supply contracts and after-sales services, which consist mainly of large production systems, large mooring systems, deep water export systems, fluid transfer systems, tanker loading and discharge terminals, design services and supply of special components and proprietary designs and equipment

No operating segments have been aggregated to form the above reportable operating segments.

The Company’s corporate overhead functions do not constitute an operating segment as defined by IFRS 8 ‘Operating segments’ and are reported under the ‘Other’ section in Note 5.3.2 Operating Segments.

Operating segments are also measured under Directional Reporting accounting policies, the main principles of which are the following:

  • all lease contracts are classified and accounted for as if they were operating lease contracts. Some Lease and Operate contracts may provide for defined invoicing (‘upfront payments’) to the client occurring during the construction phase or at first-oil (beginning of the lease phase), to cover specific construction work and/or services performed during the construction phase. These ‘upfront payments’ are recognized as revenues and the costs associated to the construction work and/or services are recognized as ‘Cost of sales’ with no margin during the construction. As a consequence, these costs are not capitalized in the gross value of the assets under construction at joint venture level. 
  • all joint ventures related to lease and operate contracts are accounted for at the Company’s share using the proportionate consolidation method (where all lines of the income statement are consolidated for the Company’s percentage of ownership).
  • all other accounting principles remain unchanged compared to applicable IFRS standards.

The above differences to the consolidated financial statements under IFRS are pointed out in the reconciliations provided in Note 5.3.2 Operating Segments on the revenue, the EBIT and other significant items, as required by IFRS 8 ‘Operating segments’.

(f) Foreign currency transactions and derivative financial instruments

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the functional currency, the US dollar, at the exchange rate applicable on the transaction date. At the closing date, monetary assets and liabilities stated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate prevailing on that date. Resulting exchange gains or losses are directly recorded in the income statement. At the closing date, non-monetary assets and liabilities stated in foreign currency remain translated into the functional currency using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction.

Translation of foreign currency income statements of subsidiaries into US dollars are converted at the average exchange rate prevailing during the year. Statements of financial position are translated at the exchange rate at the closing date. Differences arising in the translation of financial statements of foreign subsidiaries are recorded in other comprehensive income as foreign currency translation reserve. On consolidation, exchange differences arising from the translation of the net investment in foreign entities, and borrowings of such investments, are taken to Company equity.

Derivative financial instruments held by the Company are aimed at hedging risks associated with market risk fluctuations. A derivative instrument qualifies for hedge accounting (cash flow hedge or net investment hedge) when there is formal designation and documentation of the hedging relationship, and of the effectiveness of the hedge throughout the life of the contract. A cash flow hedge aims at reducing risks incurred by variations in the value of future cash flows that may impact net income. A net investment hedge aims at reducing risks incurred by variations in the value of the net investment in a foreign operation.

In order for a derivative to be eligible for hedge accounting treatment, the following conditions must be met:

  • its hedging role must be clearly defined and documented at the inception date
  • its effectiveness is proven at the inception date and as long as it remains highly effective in offsetting exposure to changes in the fair value of the hedged item or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk

All derivative instruments are recorded and disclosed in the statement of financial position at fair value. Where a portion of a financial derivative is expected to be realized within twelve months of the reporting date, that portion is presented as current; the remainder of the financial derivative as non-current.

Changes in fair value of derivatives designated as cash flow or net investment hedge relationships are recognized as follows:

  • the effective portion of the gain or loss of the hedging instrument is recorded directly in other comprehensive income, and the ineffective portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument is recorded in the income statement. The gain or loss which is deferred in equity, is reclassified to the net income in the period(s) in which the specified hedged transaction affects the income statement
  • the changes in fair value of derivative financial instruments that do not qualify as hedging in accounting standards are directly recorded in the income statement

When measuring the fair value of a financial instrument, the Company uses market observable data as much as possible. Fair values are categorized into different levels in a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used in the valuation techniques. Further information about the fair value measurement of financial derivatives is included in Note 5.3.29 Financial Instruments − Fair Values and Risk Management.

(g) Offsetting financial instruments

Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported in the statement of financial position when there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, or realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

(h) Provisions

Provisions are recognized if and only if the following criteria are simultaneously met:

  • the Company has an ongoing obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of a past event
  • it is probable that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation
  • the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated; provisions are measured according to the risk assessment or the exposed charge, based upon best-known facts

Demobilization provisions relate to estimated costs for demobilization of leased facilities at the end of the respective lease period or operating life.

Warranty provisions relate to the Company’s obligations to replace or repair defective items that become apparent within an agreed period starting from final acceptance of the delivered system. Such warranties are provided to customers on most turnkey sales. These provisions are estimated on a statistical basis regarding the Company’s past experience or on an individual basis in the case of any warranty claim already identified. These provisions are classified as current by nature as it coincides with the production cycle of the Company.

(i) Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of such items. The capital value of a facility to be leased and operated for a client is the sum of external costs (such as shipyards, subcontractors and suppliers), internal costs (design, engineering, construction supervision, etc.), third party financial costs including interest paid during construction and attributable overhead.

Subsequent costs are included in the assets’ carrying amount or recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Company and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The costs of assets include the initial estimate of costs of demobilization of the asset net of reimbursement expected to be received by the client. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to the income statement during the financial period in which they are incurred.

When significant parts of an item of property, plant and equipment have different useful lives, those components are accounted for as separate line items of property, plant and equipment. The depreciation charge is calculated based on future anticipated economic benefits, e.g. based on the unit of production method or on a straight-line basis as follows:

  • Converted tankers 10-20 years (included in Vessels and floating equipment)
  • Floating equipment 3-15 years (included in Vessels and floating equipment)
  • Buildings 30-50 years
  • Other assets 2-20 years
  • Land is not depreciated

Useful lives and methods of depreciation are reviewed at least annually, and adjusted if appropriate.

The assets’ residual values are reviewed and adjusted, if appropriate, at each statement of financial position date. An asset’s carrying amount is written down immediately to its recoverable amount if the asset’s carrying amount is higher than its estimated recoverable amount.

Gains and losses arising on disposals or retirement of assets are determined by comparing any sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset. These are reflected in the income statement in the period that the asset is disposed of or retired.

(j) Intangible assets

Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquisition over the fair value of the Company’s share of the net identifiable assets of the acquired subsidiary at the date of the acquisition.

Goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units (CGUs) for the purpose of the annual impairment testing.

Patents are amortized on a straight-line basis over their useful life, generally over fifteen years.

Research costs are expensed when incurred. In compliance with IAS 38, development costs are capitalized if all of the following criteria are met:

  • the projects are clearly defined
  • the Company is able to reliably measure expenditures incurred by each project during its development
  • the Company is able to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the project
  • the Company has the financial and technical resources available to achieve the project
  • the Company can demonstrate its intention to complete, to use or to commercialize products resulting from the project
  • the Company is able to demonstrate the existence of a market for the output of the intangible asset, or, if it is used internally, the usefulness of the intangible asset

When capitalized, development costs are carried at cost less any accumulated amortization. Amortization begins when the project is complete and available for use. It is amortized over the period of expected future benefit, which is generally between three and five years.

(k) Assets (or disposal groups) held for sale

The Company classifies assets or disposal groups as being held for sale when their carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. This classification is performed when the following criteria are met:

  • management has committed to a plan to sell the asset or disposal group
  • the asset or disposal group is available for immediate sale in its present condition
  • an active program to locate a buyer and other actions required to complete the plan to sell the asset or disposal group have been initiated
  • the sale of the asset or disposal group is highly probable
  • transfer of the asset or disposal group is expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale, within one year
  • the asset or disposal group is being actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value
  • actions required to complete the plan indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn

Assets or disposal groups classified as held for sale are measured at the lower of their carrying value or fair value less costs of disposal. Non-current assets are not depreciated once they meet the criteria to be held for sale and are shown separately on the face of the consolidated statement of financial position.

When an asset or disposal group which was previously classified as assets held for sale, is sold and leased back, the lease back transaction is analyzed regarding IAS 17 ’Leases’. For a sale and leaseback transaction that results in a finance lease, any excess of proceeds over the carrying amount is deferred and amortized over the lease term. If a sale and leaseback transaction results in an operating lease, and it is clear that the transaction is established at fair value, the profit or loss is recognized immediately.

(l) Inventories

Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined using the first-in first-out method. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated cost of completion and selling expenses. Inventories comprise semi-finished and finished products valued at cost including attributable overheads and spare parts stated at the lower of purchase price or market value.

(m) Trade and other receivables

Trade receivables are recognized initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost less impairment. At each balance sheet date, the Company assesses whether any indications exist that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired.

In relation to trade receivables, a provision for impairment is made when there is objective evidence that the Company may not be able to collect all of the amounts due. Impaired trade receivables are derecognized when they are determined to be uncollectible.

Other receivables are recognized initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost, using the effective interest rate method. Interest income, together with gains and losses when the receivables are derecognized or impaired, is recognized in the income statement.

(n) Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash in bank and in hand fulfilling the following criteria: a maturity of usually less than three months, highly liquid, a fixed exchange value and an extremely low risk of loss of value.

(o) Share capital

Ordinary Shares and Protective Preference Shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.

(p) Income tax

The tax expense for the period comprises current and deferred tax. Tax is recognized in the income statement, except to the extent that it relates to items recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity. In this case the associated tax is also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity.

Income tax expenses comprise corporate income tax due in countries of incorporation of the Company’s main subsidiaries and levied on actual profits. Income tax expense also includes the corporate income taxes which are levied on a deemed profit basis and revenue basis (withholding taxes). This presentation adequately reflects the Company’s global tax burden.

(q) Deferred income tax

Deferred income tax is recognized using the liability method, on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. Deferred tax is determined using tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the statement of financial position date and are expected to apply when the related deferred tax asset is realized or the deferred tax liability is settled.

Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilized. Deferred tax is provided for on temporary differences arising on investments in subsidiaries and associates, except where the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference is controlled by the Company and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

(r) Employee benefits

Pension obligations: the Company operates various pension schemes that are generally funded through payments determined by periodic actuarial calculations to insurance companies or are defined as multi-employer plans. The Company has both defined benefit and defined contribution plans:

  • a defined benefit plan is a pension plan that defines an amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive on retirement, usually dependent on one or more factors such as age, years of service and compensation
  • a defined contribution plan is a pension plan under which the Company pays fixed contributions to public or private pension insurance plans on a mandatory, contractual or voluntary basis. The Company has no legal or constructive obligation to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to employee service in the current and prior periods. The contributions to defined contribution plans and multi-employer plans are recognized as an expense in the income statement as incurred

The liability recognized in the statement of financial position in respect of defined benefit pension plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the statement of financial position date less the fair value of the plan assets, together with adjustments for unrecognized actuarial gains and losses and past service costs. The defined benefit obligation is calculated periodically by independent actuaries using the projected unit credit method. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is determined by discounting the estimated future cash outflows using interest rates on high-quality corporate bonds that have maturity dates approximating the terms of the Company’s obligations.

The expense recognized under the EBIT comprises the current service cost and the effects of any change, reduction or winding up of the plan. The accretion impact on actuarial debt and interest income on plan assets are recognized under the net financing cost.

Cumulative actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognized immediately in comprehensive income.

Share-based payments: within the Company there are three types of share based payment plans that qualify as equity settled:

  • Restricted Share Unit (RSU) / Performance Share Unit (PSU)
  • Performance shares
  • Matching bonus shares

The estimated total amount to be expensed over the vesting period related to share based payments is determined by reference to the fair value of the instruments determined at the grant date, excluding the impact of any non-market vesting conditions. Non-market vesting conditions are included in assumptions about the number of shares that the employee will ultimately receive. Main assumptions for estimates are revised at statement of financial position date. Total cost for the period is charged or credited to the income statement, with a corresponding adjustment to equity.

When equity instruments are exercised, the Company issues new shares.